C. cuidados de enfermería en el preoperatorio y postoperatorio mediato

Cuidados de enfermería en el preoperatorio: En este periodo la enfermera debe identificar horas antes de la operacion las necesidades que tiene el paciente, los factores de riesgo el apoyo que se necesita para preparar al individuo de forma correcta en el Pos-operatorio y son:

  • Preparacion del paciente 
  • obtener informacion de la salud del paciente
  • Preparacion psicologica
  • Antecedentes de salud
  • Determinar el diagnóstico del paciente y el tipo de cirugía
  • Aseo general 
  • Mirar si ayuno entre 8 a 12 horas
  • Venoclisis y Via venosa permeable
  • Obtención de antecedentes anestésicos e identificación de alergias o problemas genéticos conocidos que pueden afectar e resultado de la operación)
  • El día de la cirugía se revisa los conocimientos del paciente acerca del proceso, se verifican su identidad y su sitio quirúrgico, se confirma el consentimiento informado y se inicia la infusión intravenosa. 
  • Educar al paciente

Cuidados de enfermería en el Preoperatorio mediato:
  • Tomar muestras para exámenes
  • Controlar signos vitales,  peso-talla y observar estado de la piel
  • Revisar indicaciones médicas e identificar al paciente
  • Administrar medicamentos indicados
  • Observar posibles reacciones  a fármacos
  • Educar al paciente sobre los ejercicios postoperatorios

Cuidados de enfermería en el Preoperatorio inmediato:
  • Pedir al paciente que orine (si su condición lo permite)
  • Retire: prótesis dental, audífonos, lentes, joyas, adornos del cabello
  • Registrar en las notas de enfermería toda la preparación, fármacos administrados, parámetros de signos vitales, preparación zona y quién lo recibe en salas
Cuidados de enfermería en el postoperatorio mediato: Se inicia en la llegada del paciente a la Unidad de Enfermeria 

  • Aliviar el dolor
  • Prevenir complicaciones
  • Valorar el estado general del paciente
  • Coloración de piel y mucosas
  • Acomodar al paciente en la posición mas adecuada, según el tipo de intervención quirúrgica
  • Medir y registrar los signos vitales
  • Utilizar cama con barandas
  • Tranquilizar al paciente
  • Tener en cuenta:Drenajes: tipo (de vacío, bolsa…), permeabilidad, fijación y cantidad y aspecto del líquido drenado.
  • Ostomías: tipo, fijación, permeabilidad…
  • Dispositivos intravenosos: permeabilidad, tipo, calibre, localizació y fijación 




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